Frequently Asked Questions

  • I have no theological training. Will I benefit from using ScriptureDirect? >

    Absolutely. ScriptureDirect enables any user, with or without knowledge of Greek, to interact directly with the Greek New Testament text.

  • What translation was used for the English text? >

    A new interlinear translation was created by ScriptureDirect. Prof Johannes Louw did the translation and was assisted by Dr Bennie Wolvaardt.

    Prof Johannes Louw was one of the most prominent NT Greek scholars of the 20th century and the editor (with Dr Eugene Nida) of the Greek-English Lexicon of Semantic Domains, published by the United Bible Societies. This has become a standard reference work.

    Dr Bennie Wolvaardt is the Founding President of Veritas College International and developer of ScriptureDirect.


  • Is the ScriptureDirect user interface available in other languages? >

    The ScriptureDirect user interface is currently only available in English.

  • Which Greek text does ScriptureDirect use? >

    The ScriptureDirect text of the New Testament follows its own conventions re punctuation, casing and formatting. It should be kept in mind that the original Greek New Testament manuscripts as written by the authors had no punctuation, casing nor spaces and were not formatted at all. All this was done later by editors.

    To take the user to the original text as directly as possible, ScriptureDirect has chosen to follow these conventions:

    Punctuation: No punctuation is used, except question marks where it was deemed necessary. Users can judge for themselves the variations in punctuation used by different translations of Greek texts.

    Casing: Capital letters are only used to refer to proper names.

    Formatting: The text has been divided into lines to make it easier to analyse. Further, these lines have been grouped into sections according to meaning or thematic coherent units, making it easier to work on a defined piece of text.

    Text critical notes: The text does not contain any text critical notes as it was not judged to fall into the scope of ScriptureDirect.

    Greek words: For the sake of comparison, basically the same Greek wording has been used as that by Nestle-Aland 26 & 27 and UBS 3 & 4.

  • Will an interlinear translation of the Old Testament be made available? >

    The interlinear translation of the New Testament used by ScriptureDirect is a completely new translation commissioned by us. It was not a printed publication that we made available in electronic format. To do a similar translation for the Old Testament would also be an enormous project. At this stage we do not plan such a project.

  • Will updates of the app be available? >

    ScriptureDirect continuously improves the Android and iOS app as we receive feedback from users and makes this available in updates.


    However, we are aware of issues on some of the latest Apple Mac computers but are unfortunately not able to update the PC/MAC applications as the software used to develop this cross-platform application is not supported anymore.


  • How can I get further information? >

    You are welcome to submit any questions through the contact form on the Support page or via the email address provided there.

  • Is ScriptureDirect available for PC or Mac? >

    The ScriptureDirect Interlinear Greek Bible for PC and Mac is also available for free. The program for Windows PCs and Apple Mac is where it all started and it includes the same Unique Greek-English interlinear text found in the App.

    It also features creative tools for textual analysis and facilitates natural exegetical workflow. One of the standout features is the meaning sensitive search facility that finds words or phrases based on their meaning(s).

    We are aware of issues on some of the latest Apple Mac computers but are unfortunately not able to update the PC/MAC applications as the software used to develop this cross-platform application is not supported anymore. However, we maintain the Android and iOS apps.

    Please note that we do not provide technical support.

    Request your free license now



  • What are the numbers next to the meanings (e.g. 41.38)? >

    The numbers are from the Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament Based on Semantic Domains. 

    All the Greek meanings for the New Testament are listed in 93 domains or groups of meanings as indicated by the numbering. The number to the left of the decimal period indicates the semantic domain (1-93).

    • earth (1.39) is the 39th entry in the 1st domain: Geographical Objects and Features
    • world systems (41.38) is the 38th entry in the 41st domain: Behaviour and Related States
    The following list shows all 93 domains:
    1. Geographical Objects and Features
    2. Natural Substances
    3. Plants
    4. Animals
    5. Foods and Condiments
    6. Artifacts
    7. Constructions
    8. Body, Body Parts, and Body Products
    9. People
    10. Kinship Terms
    11. Groups and Classes of Persons and Members of Such Groups and Classes
    12. Supernatural Beings and Powers
    13. Be, Become, Exist, Happen
    14. Physical Events and States
    15. Linear Movement
    16. Non-Linear Movement
    17. Stances and Events Related to Stances
    18. Attachment
    19. Physical Impact
    20. Violence, Harm, Destroy, Kill
    21. Danger, Risk, Safe, Save
    22. Trouble, Hardship, Relief, Favourable Circumstances
    23. Physiological Processes and States
    24. Sensory Events and States
    25. Attitudes and Emotions
    26. Psychological Faculties
    27. Learn
    28. Know
    29. Memory and Recall
    30. Think
    31. Hold a View, Believe, Trust
    32. Understand
    33. Communication
    34. Association
    35. Help, Care For
    36. Guide, Discipline, Follow
    37. Control, Rule
    38. Punish, Reward
    39. Hostility, Strife
    40. Reconciliation, Forgiveness
    41. Behaviour and Related States
    42. Perform, Do
    43. Agriculture
    44. Animal Husbandry, Fishing
    45. Building, Constructing
    46. Household Activities
    47. Activities Involving Liquids or Masses
    48. Activities Involving Cloth
    49. Activities Involving Clothing and Adorning
    50. Contests and Play
    51. Festivals
    52. Funerals and Burial
    53. Religious Activities
    54. Maritime Activities
    55. Military Activities
    56. Courts and Legal Procedures
    57. Possess, Transfer, Exchange
    58. Nature, Class, Example
    59. Quantity
    60. Number
    61. Sequence
    62. Arrange, Organize
    63. Whole, Unite, Part, Divide
    64. Comparison
    65. Value
    66. Proper, Improper
    67. Time
    68. Aspect
    69. Affirmation, Negation
    70. Real, Unreal
    71. Mode
    72. True, False
    73. Genuine, Phony
    74. Able, Capable
    75. Adequate, Qualified
    76. Power, Force
    77. Ready, Prepared
    78. Degree
    79. Features of Objects
    80. Space
    81. Spacial Dimensions
    82. Spacial Orientations
    83. Spacial Positions
    84. Spacial Extensions
    85. Existence in Space
    86. Weight
    87. Status
    88. Moral and Ethical Qualities and Related Behaviour
    89. Relations
    90. Case
    91. Discourse Markers
    92. Discourse Referentials
    93. Names of Persons and Places
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